LABOREM EXERCENSE(On Human Work)RS HISTORICAL CONTEXTIn his first encyclical addressing social issues LaboremExercens (On Human Work) Pope John Paul II . Enciclica Laborem exercens. Main Author: Chiappetta, Luigi. Related Names: John Paul II Pope Language(s): Italian. Published: Napoli: Edizioni dehoniane, c Subjects. Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) / Juan Pablo II ; autor, Equipo DEI “Texto completo de la enciclica ; un comentario desde América Latina.”.
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Work is one of the characteristics that distinguish man from the rest of creatures, whose activity for sustaining their lives cannot be called work.
Catalog Record: Sobre el trabajo humano (Laborem exercens) | Hathi Trust Digital Library
I must however first touch on a very important field of questions in which her teaching has taken shape in this latest period, the one marked and in a sense symbolized by the publication of the Encyclical Rerum Novarum. Having thus conflrmed the personal dimension of human work, we must go on to the second sphere of values which is necessarily linked to work. Besides wages, various social benefits intended to ensure the life and health of workers and their families lanorem a part here.
If it is true that capital, as the whole of the means of production, is at the same time the product of the work of generations, it is equally true that capital is being unceasingly created through the work done with the help of all these means of production, and these means can be seen as a great workbench at which the present generation of workers is working day after day.
For it must be noted that merely taking these means of production capital out of the hands of their private owners is execrens enough to ensure their satisfactory socialization. It facilitates his work, perfects, accelerates and augments it. Persons with disabilities have the same rights as other workers: Nevertheless, even if emigration is in some laobrem an evil, in certain circumstances it is, as the phrase goes, a necessary evil.
Throughout this period, which is by no means yet over, the issue of work has of course been posed on the basis of the great conflict that in the age of, and together with, industrial development emerged between “capital” and “labour”, that is to say between the small but highly influential group of entrepreneurs, owners or holders of the means of encilcica, and the broader multitude of people who lacked these means and who shared in the process of production solely by their labour.
Without this consideration it is impossible to understand the meaning of the virtue of industriousness, and more particularly it is impossible to understand why industriousness should be a virtue: Man must work, both because the Creator has commanded it and because of his own humanity, which requires work in order to be maintained and developed.
For instance the highly industrialized countries, and even more the businesses that direct on a large scale the means of industrial production the companies referred to as multinational or transnationalfix the highest possible prices for their products, while trying exercenw the same time to fix the lowest possible prices for raw materials or semi-manufactured goods.
The recent stage of human history, especially that of certain societies, brings a correct affirmation of technology as a basic coefficient of economic progress; but, at the same time, this affirmation has been accompanied by and continues to be accompanied by the raising of essential questions concerning human work in relationship to its subject, which is man.
All that has been said above on the subject of the indirect employer is aimed at defining these relationships more exactly, by showing the many forms of conditioning within which these relationships are indirectly formed.
Legal titles to possession of a small portion of land that someone has personally cultivated for years are disregarded or left defenceless against the “land hunger” of more powerful individuals or groups. However, within the framework of the present consideration, it exercebs that economism had a decisive importance for the fundamental issue of human work, in particular for the separation of labour and capital and for setting them up in opposition as two production factors viewed in the above mentioned economistic perspective; and it seems that economism influenced this non-humanistic way of stating the issue before the materialist philosophical system did.
THROUGH WORK man must earn his daily bread 1 and contribute to the continual advance of science and technology and, above all, to elevating unceasingly the cultural and moral level of the society within which he lives encidlica community with those who belong to the same family. A way towards that goal could be found by associating labour with the ownership of capital, as far as possible, and by producing a wide range of intermediate bodies with economic, social and cultural purposes; they would be bodies exercenns real autonomy with regard to the public powers, pursuing their specific aims in honest collaboration with each other and in subordination to the demands of the common good, and they would be living communities both in form and in substance, in the sense that the members of each body would be looked upon and treated as persons and encouraged to take an active part in the life of the body All these rights, together with the need for the workers themselves to secure them, give rise to yet another right: It leads to an increase in the quantity of things produced by work, and in many cases improves their quality.
During the years that separate us from the publication of the Encyclical Rerum Novarum, the social question has not ceased to engage the Church’s attention. In the following part of these considerations I intend to return in greater detail to these important questions, recalling at least the basic elements of the Church’s teaching on the matter. This right is not limited to industrial workers, but belongs to every class and profession. Enviclica conflict originated in the fact that the workers put their powers at the disposal of the entrepreneurs, and these, following the principle of maximum profit, tried to establish the lowest possible wages for the work done by the employees.
Thus the issue of ownership or property enters from the beginning into the whole of this difficult historical process.
Encíclica Laborem Exercens by Alejandro Espeso García on Prezi
Every effort must be made to ensure that exefcens this kind of system also the human person can preserve his awareness of working “for himself”. John Paul expressed concerns about the phenomenon of people who emigrateeither permanently or seasonally, in search of work:.
Thus agriculture constitutes through human work a primary field of economic activity and an indispensable factor of production. In many situations radical and urgent changes are therefore needed in order to restore to agriculture-and to rural people-their just value as the basis for a healthy economy, within the social community’s development as a whole. Such a system of mutual dependence is in itself normal. The true advancement of women requires that labour should be structured in such a way that women do not have to pay for their advancement by abandoning what is specific to them and at the expense of the family, in which women as mothers have an irreplaceable role.
All this pleads in favour of the moral obligation to link industriousness as a virtue with the social order of work, which will enable man to become, in work, “more a human being” and not be degraded by it not only because of the wearing out of his physical strength which, at least up to a certain point, is inevitablebut especially through damage to the dignity and subjectivity that are proper to him.
This is not to absolve the direct employer from his own responsibility, but only to draw attention to the whole network of influences that condition his conduct. This concerns in a special way ownership of the means of production. A Reflection on the Shoah Dominus Iesus.
And work means any activity by man, whether manual or intellectual, whatever its nature or circumstances; it means any human activity that can and must be recognized as work, in the midst of all the many activities of which man is capable and to which he is predisposed by his very nature, by virtue of humanity itself. According to the principal ideologists and leaders of this broad international movement, the purpose of this programme of action is to achieve the social revolution and to introduce socialism and, finally, the communist system throughout the world.
Added to this are the lack of adequate professional training and of proper equipment, the spread of a certain individualism, and also objectively unjust situations. We are celebrating the ninetieth anniversary of the Encyclical Rerum Novarum on the eve of new developments in technological, economic and political conditions which, according to many experts, will influence the world of work and production no less than the industrial revolution of the last century.
Even when it is accompanied by toil and effort, work is still something good, and so man develops through love for work. In the subjective dimension there is realized, first of all, that “dominion” over the world of nature to which man is called from the beginning according to the words of the Book of Genesis.
But it is fitting that they should be able to fulfil their tasks in accordance with their own nature, without being discriminated against and without being excluded from jobs for which they are capable, but also without lack of respect for their family aspirations and for their specific role in contributing, together with men, to the good of society.
These include greater isolation; hard physical toil; inadequate wages, benefits, and training; and oppression of those who actually cultivate the soil by wealthy landowners.
Since the direct employer is the person or institution with whom the worker enters directly into a work contract in accordance with definite conditions, we must understand as the indirect employer many different factors, other than the direct employer, that exercise a determining influence on the shaping both of the work contract and, consequently, of just or unjust relationships in the field of human labour.
Laborem exercens – Wikipedia
The Encyclical Mater et Magistra did the same. This fact is certainly not without difficulties of various kinds. And this mark decides its interior characteristics; in a sense it constitutes its very nature. This way of stating the issue contained a fundamental error, what we can call the error of economism, that of considering human labour solely according to its economic purpose. The person who works desires not only due remuneration for his work; he also wishes that, within the production process, provision be made for him to lablrem able to know that in his work, even on something that is owned in common, he is working “for himself”.