[1] Grupul de Economie Aplicată (GEA), , Manual de evaluare a competitivității regionale, București, p. 5. Local economical development principles. Manual de supravie_uire si crestere a firmelor în condi_iile economiei de pia_a, Grupul de Economie Aplicata(GEA- The Applied Economy Group), Manual de . Matematică aplicată în economie: manual de studiu individual by Tatiana Corina Dosescu(Book) 1 edition published in in Romanian and held by 2.

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In the three countries there are two types of cluster economje schemes: In various studies and research projects there were identified several potential clusters in Romania: Looking in particular the ecohomie development of industrial structures, Porter demonstrated the influence of competitive relations between national industries and economic development, by the model of competitive aplicatx of national industries.

Once resources are exhausted and the work force revolts, industries relocate themselves. Development of automotive components sector in the Western Region was conducted by both local specialized societies, and by attracting foreign investors.

The main benefits identified by the organization after adoption of the cluster model are productivity, regional specificities, increased mobility of information. According to this concept, development is an unbalanced and hierarchical process, in which a certain number of economic units play an engine role that puts them out from the others.

LTIS – CATEDRA DE ȘTIINȚE SOCIO-UMANE | Manual de Economie aplicată

The English cluster means bunch, bouquet, group. He argues the need for stronger industrial ties between the competitive sectors, so that the participation in international competition to lead to growth effects for the national prosperity.

The European Cluster Memorandum, http: Product life cycle theory is developed by Raymond Vernonwhich started its work on links between the expenses incurred by the firm for long-term research and development and its possibilities of winning according to phases or steps that can browse a product from its launch on the market, until the end of its production.

Weber extended the basic model by considering a cheap labour force and by taking into account the agglomeration areas, which increases the consumer market of goods, generating savings. Cluster theory, launched by Michael E. The specialty literature regarding local economic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories, such as: Clusters represent an important instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness and economic growth.


Finally, some clusters include governmental and other institutions – such as universities, standards agencies, think tanks, vocational training providers and employers – to provide specialized training, education, information, research and technical support Porter, a Porter, b.

Romania was the partner country in the project and the final project report on Romania has identified four potential clusters occurred in Harghita County Central Region in woodworking, pottery, printing and switchgear industry. In this economic sector there are operating companies that operate exclusively or with a part of production. Opportunities to structure industrial clusters exist in other geographical areas of Romania.

A business cluster is a group, a cluster of organizations with a competitive nature in a target market. The main author of the typology is Hoover Location Theory and the Shoe and Leather Industry – and The Location of Economic Activitywho believes that internal economies of scale are specific for companies, localization economies for certain branches, sub-branches, whose companies form clusters in certain geographical areas E.

He offered a definition of competitive agglomeration clusterstaken as a standard option by most of the literature on this topic: The solution of the problem is the one that minimizes total transportation costs, in a graphical approach being determined by circles curves centred on the sources supply costs and markets shippingwhich are composed of points representing the same level of costs.

A region may become vulnerable if held portfolio of clusters is too concentrated. Productivity, with increasing wages and employability of the workforce, are considered the main reasons for increased interest in the formation of clusters. The existence of an early horizontal cluster is motivated by the companies perception in terms of characteristics of local production system: Often, clusters are extending to different downstream channels and customers and laterally to manufacturers of complementary products and to the industries related by skills, technologies or common inputs.

From the translation of the verb cluster, that means to gather in one place, to group after a criterion, we get to the definition of the concept given by Porter, namely, cluster is a geographical concentration of companies that are competing, but also cooperating, the suppliers of goods and services and their associated institutions.

There are many definitions of clusters, different from each other and a wide typology of clusters in all industry. Location theory justifies its importance: This theory is based on a simple observation: According to Edgar M.

Basically, the common point which links them are the concepts which occur in these theories, such as: Increased mobility of information that occurred due to interactive system of the clusters is the third main benefit of clusterization.


Marshall, Hoover, Perroux, Chimitz and Mills. Click here to sign up. Moreover, the cluster can ,anual not be the answer to increasing the competitiveness of a region, source may come from elsewhere. Other descriptions of industrial clusters are based on: If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private persons and companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments and public institutions of national or regional level.

It is known that technology aplidata innovation do not develop in isolated organizations, but in open environments, where there is interaction between competent individuals of different organizations. Overall, the role of government is to be the facilitator and participant in public- private partnerships.

Although clustering companies is naturally, Romania can encourage cluster development by supporting efforts that emerging group of companies can do to realize the full potential merger.

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Alfred Marshall showed that geographical concentration of a particular industry determines specialty suppliers, attracts the workforce as a set of common skills, ensures economic security for the employees, and creates good market for the suppliers and conditions of improving and specializing the offer. The potential clusters were identified in the textile industry from Timis and Bacau counties, software sector from Timisoara, Cluj and Bucharest, woodworking splicata Mures, in the chemical industry, metal products, general purpose machinery and engines form Brasov, and the local clusters in different areas such as – leather and footwear, electrical components, telecommunications equipment and radio and TV.

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Boudeville demonstrated that regional growth pole has a large number of development sectors, located in urban areas and which are able to generate increased economic activity around the entire area of influence. Remember me on this computer.

Log In Sign Up. Biotechnologies, transport and mobility, health and medicine, new materials, manufacturing and engineering, aviation and space, energy and environment, ICT, micro-nano-opto. Clusterization risks arise from the very basic principles of the clusters specialization.